Glossary

In the same way as with your email addresses, it is possible to transmit one of your addresses Ethereum in order to receive ethers. An Ethereum address looks like a string of alphanumeric characters. Knowing the address [email protected] does not allow you to access the mailbox, nor to send e-mails from it, just as it is not possible to access funds or to carry out outgoing transactions simply thanks to the Ethereum address. In order to be able to access the mailbox [email protected], you need the password linked to this address, which can be assimilated to the private key linked to the Ethereum address (see Private key). In Ethereum there are user account addresses as well as addresses of smart-contracts. Both use the same format, in hexadecimal, and look like 0x9f8F72aA9304c8B593d555F12eF6589cC3A579A2. Ethereum addresses always start with 0x.

It means putting all your capital at stake on the same cryptocurrency at the same time. Might as well tell you it’s usually a bad strategy.

All cryptocurrencies except Bitcoin (Ethereum, Ripple, Dash, Monero…) are collectively referred to as Altcoins. There are about 5000 of them.

Asymmetric cryptography is an area of cryptography where there is a distinction between public and private data, as opposed to symmetric cryptography where functionality is achieved by the possession of a common secret data between the different participants.

Market showing a downward trend.

Bitcoin is the first cryptocurrency, created by Satoshi Nakamoto. Beyond being the most well-known and most highly capitalized cryptocurrency, it is also totally decentralized, i.e. no authority controls it.

The first block, the genesis block, is block number 0. From there, each block is numbered according to its order of arrival. The block #7080000 is thus the 7080001th block of the Blockchain

The Blockchain is a data register used as an account book for cryptocurrencies. It differs from a traditional database by the fact that it is replicated and immutable and is intended to record transactions, which can be of multiple natures.

A website through which information from transactions included in blocks can be viewed in humanly intelligible terms. This is useful information for consulting the status of a transaction in progress, for checking the receipt of payments, and for consulting the code of the various smart-contracts.

Transactions in a blockchain are recorded in the form of blocks, whose hashs ensure security and immutability. Each block is cryptographically linked to the previous one, hence the name blockchain.

As in traditional finance, a bubble is equivalent to an artificial rise in prices, caused by speculation, which ends in a burst and therefore a sharp fall.

Market showing an upward trend.

The smart-contracts Ethereum are listed in the Blockchain Ethereum in their compiled form called the bytecode. The bytecode is an efficient but incomprehensible language for humans, that is why developers do not code directly in bytecode but rather in solidity or vyper, which are more accessible languages that compile in bytecode. It is then executed in EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine).

Byzantium is the first phase of deployment of Metropolis, the third phase of network development Ethereum. This update of the Ethereum protocol implemented via a hard-fork to block 4 370 000 in October 2017. Nine EIPs were then implemented with the aim of scalability, confidentiality and security of the Ethereum network.

Computing power is the number of hash per second calculated by a machine or even by the entire network. On Ethereum the computing power is of the order of 180 TerraHash/sec. The machines spend electricity in order to perform these operations.

Cold storage means keeping a reserve of Bitcoin offline, which is allowed when there are Bitcoin private keys created and stored in a secure, offline environment. Storing funds on platforms or on a connected computer presents significant risks incompatible with large amounts of money.

After a transaction has been included in block n, it has a confirmation. As soon as a new n+1 block is released and distributed in the network, the transaction has two confirmations. Each additional block linked to the Blockchain adds one confirmation to the transaction. It is considered that 6 or more confirmations are sufficient to ensure the non-reversibility of the transaction. It should be noted that 6 confirmations are acceptable for the bitcoin blockchain. For the other blockchains, it’s different.

Consensus is achieved when different nodes (often the majority of nodes on the network) have the same blocks in their local Blockchain. In case of a difference between the local Blockchains of the nodes, we speak of fork. Reorganization of the network is done by selecting the longest chain from the fork. Not to be confused with the consensus rules..

Consensus rules allow full nodes (whole nodes) to remain in consensus with other nodes in the network. It is a specific set of rules that all nodes will systematically apply when considering the validity of a block and its transactions. They concern only the validity of blocks and transactions. For example, the Ethereum consensus rules require that blocks only create a certain number of ethers. If a block creates more ethers than allowed, all full nodes will reject this block, even if all other nodes and miners in the world accept it. Adding new consensus rules can usually be done by soft fork, while removing any consensus rules requires a hard fork.

Royalty Tokens can only be exchanged to fiat (USD, GBP, Eur etc.) or CopyrightCoins®
When Royalty Tokens is exchanged to CopyrightCoins®, the same amount as CopyrightCoins® in Copyright Tokens will also be transferred to the Copyright holder’s wallet for use in NIMs services. Consequently, if you are a copyright holder, you will receive Copyright Tokens for free. You can use it to register a new song at any of our partners or directly with us.
If you are NOT a CopyrightShares holder (i.e. receiving royalties), you will have to pay with Copyright Tokens to access NIMs services.

It’s a currency like US Dollar, Euro and British Pound. The significant difference is that CopyrightCoins® is more resistant to inflation as it is anchored in Internet’s lifeblood – content.
CopyrightCoins® is fungible and in public use as payment for almost everything from music streamed subscriptions to FOREX speculation. CopyrightCoins® is governed by New Internet Media (NIM) and are represented by the alias ccim.eth address (0x16922cf675331F2d9dc719B1A916F8D829B04dCd), a guarantee that the transaction is handled by NIM. CopyrightCoins® will reflect the value of royalties represented by Royalty Tokens.

A CopyrightID serves as an identificatory of any copyright within the CopyrightChain ecosystem. CopyrightID is roughly the equivalent to International Securities Identification Number (ISIN) as defined in ISO 6166. For backward compatibility and metadata retrieval from the back catalogues in certain industries such as music, it contains a reference to international standards (such as ISWC and ISRC in music).

In principle, everybody will have access to NIMs services. However, just as your meals and drinks in a pub have to be paid for, so does NIM services. Just as you leave your credit card at the bar, so does NIM has to have a guarantee for payments. With NIMs distributed technology, that is easy and why we created Copyrights Token.
It’s like NIMs Christmas lunch at our favourite pub. All employees get tokens (coupons) they can use for payments in the pub. If they invite someone (husband/wife), they have to buy extra tokens. The tokens are only valuable if used in that particular pub.
As NIMs services are fueled by content (starting with music), access to that content must be paid. NIM divides the access into two main categories:

  • Copyright owners/holders (NIMs team)
  • Clients/customers/partners (husband/wife)

Acts as a decentralised platform for creating and trading digital assets. This is the home of CopyrightChains registration of Copyrights as well as the trading platform CopyrightShares (details under NDA). The CopyrightShares can be (and will be) different as to which country/legal environment we are operating in. Each copyright is identified by a CopyrightID

It is a digital currency, the security of which relies on cryptography.

The Blockchain Ethereum allows to implement and run computer code in such a decentralized way that it can be implemented and run on all nodes of the network at the same time, i.e. on all nodes of the network at the same time. This makes this code “immortal”, public, and usable by everyone. This code is also called “smart-contract”. Smart-contracts give rise to decentralized applications, accessible via a classic web browser and which therefore benefit from the same characteristics.

A number of cryptocurrency are based on decentralization. In a decentralized cryptocurrency, any change in its operation must be subject to a broad consensus throughout the community. This principle is opposed to state currencies where a central bank makes the decisions, and to private payment systems such as Paypal, where a company controls the system.

Difficulty is a parameter allowing to ensure a regular average time between 2 blocks according to the calculation power available on the network. On Ethereum, its value is recalculated all the blocks by readjusting itself in relation to the moving average over the last 2048 blocks. This ensures an average time of 15.7 seconds between 2 block validations, whatever the power changes on the network. The higher the difficulty, the smaller the common target for the miners is.

The Ethereum Name Service, as its name indicates, allows you to manage Ethereum domain names. Thus, the domain name ccim.eth is linked to the address 0x16922cf675331F2d9dc719B1A916F8D829B04dCd. This simplifies the reading and sharing of Ethereum addresses while limiting the risk of error. It is also possible to create sub-domains for a company address, for example nim.ccim.eth or bull.ccim.eth. It is also possible via the IPFS network to link this address to a website, for example .

A standard interface for contracts that manage multiple token types. A single deployed contract may include any combination of fungible tokens, non-fungible tokens or other configurations (e.g. semi-fungible tokens).
This standard outlines a smart contract interface that can represent any number of fungible and non-fungible token types. Existing standards such as ERC-20 require deployment of separate contracts per token type. The ERC-721 standard’s token ID is a single non-fungible index and the group of these non-fungibles is deployed as a single contract with settings for the entire collection. In contrast, the ERC-1155 Multi Token Standard allows for each token ID to represent a new configurable token type, which may have its own metadata, supply and other attributes.

ERC-1400 defines a multitude of standards for security tokens. These enable tokens to integrate essential functions for the management of financial securities on the Ethereum Blockchain, for example the possibility for a regulator to intervene in the exchanges.

The Ethereum Request for Comment #20 (ERC20) is the most widespread standard for creating tokens. The ERC20 are fungible tokens that can have utility, monetary, or governance value within a Dapp. An ERC-20 token may also be of no use at all apart from its own existence.

ERC-721 is the first standard allowing the creation of non-fungible tokens. This allows, contrary to ERC-20 tokens, the creation of tokens with a unique identity. They are notably used in the Cryptokitties project where each digital cat has its own identity in the form of an ERC-721 token on the Ethereum blockchain and in the Decentraland project where each ERC-721 token gives a property right to a piece of digital land. Some projects wish to use the ERC-721 as digital and exchangeable representations of traditional assets.

Ethereum is a cryptocurrency, created in 2014 by Vitalik Buterin. It is the second most capitalized cryptography after Bitcoin, which has the particularity of being able to execute smart contracts.

Ethereum 2.0 is a separate Blockchain that communicates with the Blockchain Ethereum. In particular, it will be in charge of managing the Proof-of-Stake and sharding component of the Ethereum network. Thus, the current Main Blockchain (Eth 1.0) will continue to operate via the Proof-of-Work in order to continue to ensure a high level of security during this transition period. Once the Ethereum 2.0 chain is implemented, ether holders will be able to migrate their ethers from the current Blockchain to the new Blockchain

On Ethereum, the blocks are mined on average every 15.7 seconds and have a capacity of 8,000,000 units of gas.

The purpose of the Ethereum Foundation is to promote and help finance research and development projects for technologies that can improve the Ethereum Protocol. According to information provided by Vitalik Buterin, the Ethereum Foundation has had at most 3M ETH, and would have today a little more than 500k ETH at its disposal, the rest having been used to finance projects.

Transaction fees are a feature of the Bitcoin protocol. They are paid by the issuer of a transaction, and are collected by the miner who enables the release of the block containing the transaction. They provide an economic incentive to mine on the Bitcoin network. They are calculated according to the difference between the input and the output of a transaction.

State currency distributed by a central bank, such as the euro or the dollar. The name FIAT is derivated from the term fiduciary which comes from the Latin “fiducia”, trust. The value of a FIAT money is therefore based on the trust placed in it, and not on an underlying such as currencies based on the gold standard.

A Fork is a split of the blockchain, which results in two incompatible networks. This split can disappear after a few minutes or hours, and is then called soft fork, and it is a relatively frequent phenomenon. Otherwise, it is called a hard fork. The two blockchains are then definitively separated, and a new cryptocurrency is created. The Bitcoin Cash is a perfect example of a hard fork having taken place.

On Ethereum, the blocks have a maximum capacity of 8,000,000 gas units. Each operation has a cost established in gas units. For example, a classic transaction from one account to another costs 21,000 gas units. Transactions using complex functionality in the smart-contracts can cost much more in gas units. Each gas unit has a price denominated in Gwei (1 Gwei = 0.000000001 ETH) defined by market demand. To know the price of the gas unit at any time, we recommend the Chrome Ethereum Gas Price extension.

This is block n°0 of a Blockchain, the first block sent which allows to initialize the network. It is the only block that does not refer to the previous block. On Ethereum the genesis block was mined on July 30, 2015 at 15h36 UTC.

Github is the world’s largest source code storage platform. It’s free and allows any developer to store and update his project. Github is widely used in the cryptocurrency world. Anyone can contribute code for different protocols.

Gwei is a unit of account that refers to 0.000000001 ether. It is also equivalent to 1000 wei, the smallest unit of account in Ethereum. It is used to calculate the price of a unit of gas.

In a crypto currency such as the Bitcoin, each time a new block is validated, a production of a certain number of bitcoins results. The translation of the English word “Halving” means halving. The protocol states that approximately every 4 years a “halving” takes place on the Bitcoin Blockchain. The number of bitcoins generated during the validation of a new block is then halved. The consequence is that this asset becomes scarce, which is one of the main characteristics that gives it value. This mechanism determines the final limit of 21 million Bitcoins that can be reached. So far, the Bitcoin network has witnessed 3 “Halvings”: the first one in November 2012, the second one in July 2016 and the third and last one in May 2020.

A hard fork is a permanent divergence on a blockchain. The blocks of the 2 parallel chains are no longer compatible due to major changes in the consensus rules.

This is a type of wallet that allows the user to store his or her private keys on specialized secure equipment.

A single numeric fingerprint from a hash function that transforms an input of any number of characters or data into a single fixed-size character output

Irreversible protection algorithm for establishing a unique digital fingerprint of a string of characters of variable length (can be a document, an audio file, a public key, etc). Two perfectly identical documents have the same hash as a result of applying the same hash function. However, if they differ, even minimally, the hashes of the two documents will be noticeably different. This makes it possible to determine the integrity of considerable amounts of data without having to look at them.

Equivalent to the calculation power of a miner or mining network.

Following a typing error by a user on a forum that has become a meme, the word hodl means “hold”. Hodlers refuse to sell their cryptos regardless of the state of the market.

An ICO is a fund raising related to crypto currency, organized most of the time in a decentralized way.

Entries of a transaction represent debits to the Bitcoin issuer account. These are the amounts issued to the receiver. Once the transaction has been validated, the input changes to an output

Short for Know Your Customer, this term refers to internal processes that identify and verify the identity of a company’s customers. Companies of all sizes use these processes to ensure the integrity, probity and compliance of their customers with anti-corruption, money laundering, tax fraud and terrorist financing laws.

The Lightning Network is an overlay of the Bitcoin network, designed to overcome the problems of scalability. With the Lightning Network, it should be possible to reach millions of transactions per second on the network.

The market cap represents the total value of a currency, calculated by multiplying the number of units in circulation by the value of the unit.

The memory pool is composed of transactions awaiting validation that have not yet been included in a block and entered in the Blockchain.

This is a method of data structure in computing and cryptography, which takes the form of an upside down tree, where the input data represents the leaves and the output data represents the Merkle Root. This is a secure and efficient method of verifying the integrity of a large amount of data. On the network Ethereum, many transactions are streamed. These transactions are drawn from the Memory Pool and are condensed into blocks. Let’s assume that our block is composed of 8 transactions, ranging from T1 to T8. These transactions are the leaves of our Merkle tree. Making the Merkle tree of these transactions would produce the hash H1 (from T1 and T2), then the h3 hash (T3 and T4), the h4 hash (T5 and T6) and the H4 hash (T7 and T8). From this, we derive the hash K1 from H1 and h3, then K2 from h4 and H4. We continue according to the same scheme until we obtain the Merkle Root. The Merkle Root represents the final hash condensing the hashes of all the TXIDs of the block (the leaves). In the previous example, the Merkle Root is the hash of K1 and K2.

Metamask is a wallet web3 that takes the form of a Chrome extension. It recognizes web sites decentralized applications and takes care of packaging all the actions you can perform there in Ethereum transactions for you, greatly facilitating the interaction with the Ethereum Blockchain.

If we take the Ethereum blockchain as an example, the miner is a computer hardware whose role is to validate the blocks on the network, on which an Ethereum node has been installed. The role of this node is to find the proof of valid work for the new blocks, by repeated and incremental hashing of a nonce.

The Ethereum network is a network open-source peer-to-peer which propagates transactions and blocks to each node of the network. It works thanks to the internet and the consensus rules enacted by the code.

Access to the infrastructure with a consensus mechanism based upon content servers, software, security, and administration comes at a cost (just as running a pub has a cost) To ensure we have a certain level of seriousness from our partners, there has to be a minimum of 5000 Copyright Tokens in the active wallet using the service just as you would leave your credit card behind the bar to guarantee payment before you go.

A node has a full copy of the Blockchain, thus contributing to its security. A node replicates information from other nodes in a synchronization process.

A transaction is characterized Off-Chain when the value movement takes place outside the register of the Blockchain. Unlike an On-chain transaction (a transaction whose result is written into the Blockchain), an Off-chain transaction will not modify the Blockchain and will depend on other methods to verify its validity. The Blockchain then acts as a clearing house. NIMs licensing service and NIMs reporting service is off-chain cleared by the CopyrightChain CopyrightID reference

Initiative present in the world of software development consisting in producing software whose licenses respect the charter established by the Open Source Initiative, including the possibilities of free redistribution, creation of derivative works and access to the source code.

Acting in panic when there are large market fluctuations, in this case buying assets when the market starts to rise sharply for fear of missing a great opportunity.

Acting in panic when there are large market fluctuations, in this case selling your assets when the market starts to fall sharply for fear of losing more money.

It is basically a private key generated offline and written on paper. It is possible to send and store funds on the public addresses linked to this private key, but it will be necessary to import the private key on a software connected to the network Ethereum in order to be able to perform an outgoing transaction.

A payment channel is established by two users via a transaction Ethereum. They decide the amount allocated to the channel and can then make as many transactions as they wish off-chain. A new transaction will be required to close the channel and allocate funds on-chain.

This term characterizes a computer network whose users are both servers and clients, i.e. they share the same resources without the need for a centralized server system.

PGP keys (for “Pretty Good Privacy”) are cryptographic tools to validate the authenticity of a message or to encrypt/decrypt messages.

A private blockchain is a permissioned blockchain. Private blockchains work based on access controls which restrict the people who can participate in the network. There are one or more entities which control the network and this leads to reliance on third-parties to transact. In a private blockchain, only the entities participating in a transaction will have knowledge about it, whereas the others will not be able to access it. Hyperledger Fabric of Linux Foundation is a perfect example of a private blockchain.

If we continue the analogy with messaging, the private key allows access to the full functionality of the address Ethereum, just as the password allows access to the mailbox to view and send messages. The private key is randomly generated by a computer program at the first initialization of a portfolio, and is then derived to produce the Public Key and the different Ethereum addresses. It is in the form of an alpha-numeric character string. Just like messaging clients that allow password recovery in case of loss, the Ethereum network offers security as a mean of recovering the private key, such as generating a SEED at initialization. If its security was not in place when the private key was lost, then the funds will be considered lost as inaccessible.

With Proof of Content, members can participate after depositing their content. This is known as a “stake”. Members move their stake. If they try recording false information or doing something against the rules, they risk being thrown out, and their content will be frozen for a time. Members who provide a stake are known as “validators”.

This is one of the methods to achieve a distributed consensus on the blockchain of a crypto-active network. This method requires the validators of blocks to sequester a certain amount of funds in order to be able to validate the blocks of transactions and retrieve the related rewards. The Proof-of-Stake will be implemented progressively on the Ethereum network, first via the Beacon Chain. Avalanche is a POS chain.

The Proof-of-Work symbolizes a measure of the resources and time required to complete a task. In the context of crypto-currency, a Proof-of-Work is required when adding new blocks to the Blockchain. The proof-of-work is asymmetric, which means that it must be difficult to provide for the applicant (in this case the miner) but very simple to verify for third parties (the full nodes). On Ethereum, proof of work is provided by the presentation of a valid nonce. This iterative work consists in incrementing the nonce by adding 1 to each trial, until finding a value allowing the hash of the block to be lower than the current target. There is also a mixhash which can also be incremented if all the possibilities of the nonce have been tried without success. In addition to this, the timestamp naturally changes every second, which has a direct consequence on the hash. The nodes will only have to check by generating the hash of the block broadcast (including the nonce and mixhash) on the network to validate or invalidate the block, without having to do the work necessary to discover these parameters again.

A public blockchain is permissionless. Anyone can join the network and read, write, or participate within the blockchain. A public blockchain is decentralized and does not have a single entity which controls the network. Data on a public blockchain are secure as it is not possible to modify or alter data once they have been validated on the blockchain. Bitcoin and Ethereum are well-known examples of a public blockchain.

The public key is derived directly from a private key via an ECDSA algorithm considered irreversible (the calculation power and the time required would be considerable). It allows to generate all the public addresses linked to the private key, by derivation in Base58Check.

Action which consists in inciting to invest in a cryptocurrency in order to artificially raise prices, and thus be able to sell at the high price.

The reward refers to the amount collected by the miner when he validates a block. This is a controlled (or uncontrolled) cryptoactive emission intended for the miner having provided the correct nonce, to which is added the sum of the fees of the transactions included in the block. On Ethereum, the emission is currently 3 ethers per block of transactions and will increase to 2 ethers per block with Constantinople.

Royalties Tokens (ROYs) are ERC20-compliant tokens where the functionality allows IMF (or the parties IMF appoints) to create an arbitrary number of new ROYs, as long as the ROYs are deleted in the same number before the end of the same transaction.
It is a great concept, but only if ROYs themselves has (intrinsic) value as as- set-backed tokens and ROYs have just that…

Royalty Tokens are “credit tokens” always representing the royalties paid or to be paid by DSPs and others using copyrighted content. Only Copyright Owners/holders can receive Royalty Tokens, and they are the only ones that can exchange them.
If you are in an English pub and go to the bar disk to order a drink, you pay for it before drinking it (user-centric). Or, if you are “running up a tab” in the pub, you leave your credit card with the bartender and pay for your drinks and a meal before you leave (service-centric).
Access to NIM content (licensing) has to be paid for with Royalty Tokens and access to NIMs services (registration, trading in copyrights and NFT sells etc.) has to be paid for with Copyrights Token.

As a tribute to its creator, Satoshi Nakamoto, it was decided that the smallest subdivision of Bitcoin would be called a Satoshi. Thus, 1 Satoshi = 0.00000001 BTC.

Satoshi Nakamoto is the pseudonym used by the creator(s) of Bitcoin. His identity remains unknown to this day.

It is a term referring to the ability of a Blockchain to be able to handle an increasing number of transactions. Scalability is an essential element in the development of a Blockchain. Avalanche is the best example of an scalable blockchain

It is an illegal plan for making money, especially one that involves tricking people. They are unfortunately common in the cryptocurrencies ecosystem.

The seed is a security that allows a user to easily retrieve his wallet. It is a list of words provided in a specific order that contain all the information needed to restore the private key. If a malicious individual falls on this seed, he will be able to send the funds to a wallet he controls, so it is strongly advised to keep it very carefully (and offline).

SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) is a family of cryptographic functions from hashage designed by the NSA, allowing the integrity of data to be determined without the need to consult documents. To do so, the SHA function is able to transform a string of characters of random length (a novel, a photo, a music,…) into a string of characters of fixed length (in this case 256 bits for SHA-256, which represents 64 characters). The slightest change, even minor, to the initial character string has an extremely visible effect on the result of the algorithm: the hash of the modified document is totally different from the hash of the original document.

Sharding is a method of distributing the network load between nodes. Thus, X nodes of the network validate a part of the operations on the Ethereum Blockchain and X other nodes validate another part of the operations. This allows scaling Ethereum because the network is able to process more operations each time X nodes join the network.

The signature proves that the funds are in the possession of the issuer when the issuer performs a transaction. The signature is derived from the Private Key according to the ECDSA algorithm, which is considered irreversible. It is therefore possible to pass a fraction of ethers via a transaction signed by the issuer. This signed transaction can then be written in the Blockchain.

  • Both function as an append-only ledger where the records can be added but cannot be altered or deleted. Hence, these are called immutable records.
  • Each network node in both these blockchains has a complete replica of the ledger. Both are decentralized and distributed over a peer-to-peer network of computers.
  • In both, the validity of a record is verified, thus providing a considerable level of immutability, until the majority of the participants agree that it is a valid record and reach consensus. This helps prevent tampering with the records.
  • Both blockchains rely on numerous users to authenticate edits to the distributed ledger thus helping in the creation of a new master copy which can be accessed by everyone at all times.

A smart-contract is a computer program implemented on the Blockchain Ethereum via a transaction. The smart-contracts are then available to anyone who wishes to use them and can no longer be removed, deactivated or censored. The most popular programming languages are Solidity and more recently Vyper. These languages compile into Bytecode so that nodes in the Ethereum network can execute smart-contracts via the EVM. Avalanche C-chain is an EVM

Solidity is the most widely used programming language for smart-contracts. It is close to Javascript.

Staking refers to the fact of immobilizing a certain quantity of cryptocurrency in a service allowing to perform a validation such as the proof-of-stake, and to receive the rewards provided for by the service in question.

A state channel, like a payment channel, allows two users to open a channel and perform transactions off-chain. The difference is that precise rules, in a game run off-chain via a state channel for example, can be defined on-chain to execute a result depending on the actions of the state channel stakeholders.

An STO is a fundraiser for a financial product tokenized. For example, it may be shares in a tokenized company. STOs must be regulated and new token standards such as the ERC-1400 are being developed to facilitate their implementation. There are also projects such as Polymath that seek to create the necessary infrastructure for their deployment and use.

The timestamp is one of the components of a block header on the Bitcoin network. It is the number of seconds that have elapsed since January 1, 1970 at 00:00 UTC, commonly known as Unix Time. It is a changing value providing variance for the generation of the hash during the process of mining.

A token is an asset, generated on blockchain, without being the native asset. For example, CCIM is a token of the blockchain Ethereum and CTIM is a token of the blockchain Avalanche, whereas any CopyrightID is a token of the CopyrightChainn X-chain.

A transaction, also known as an On-chain transaction, represents an exchange of value, data or property between two users. Transactions are unencrypted and are viewable via Blockchain explorers (Blockchain explorer). Following its diffusion on the network, this transaction awaiting validation is found in the Memory Pool. It is recorded in the Blockchain register once it has been included in a block and then validated.

Programming languages are called Turing-complete if they allow to represent all calculable functions in the sense of Turing and Church . In particular, this allows the use of loops, which allow the iteration of functions in smart-contracts, which opens up the field of possibilities in terms of application programming. Solidity or Vyper are Turing-complete programming languages.

The TXID is the unique identifier of a transaction.

This service is based in the USA and follows the Technical-focused Bill 38 that has been in effect since July 1, 2021.
That pivotal legislation allowed Wyoming to recognise Blockchain-based companies (DAOs) as Limited Liabilities Companies governed by smart contracts based on blockchain technology.
The law affords DAOs the same rights as any other limited liability company.

A CopyrightChain validator is responsible for verifying transactions on the CopyrightChains. Once transactions are verified, they are added to the ledger. In proof of stake systems like CopyrightChains, validators are given re- wards as long as they stake the network’s token (i.e. NIMs Utility Token). This consensus mechanism also helps secure the network.
A Copyrightchain, or a subnetwork, is a dynamic set of validators (aka computer servers) working together to achieve consensus on the state of a set of blockchains. Each blockchain is validated by exactly one subnet. A subnet can validate many blockchains. A node may be a member of many subnets.
A subnet manages its own membership, and it may require that its constituent validators have certain properties.

At the age of 25, Vitalik Buterin is the co-founder of Bitcoin Magazine and the creator of Ethereum.

A volatile market is one in which the market is expected to fluctuate strongly and regularly.

A wallet, in the crypto world, is a software or device that allows to store private keys and to use them to send transactions on a blockchain. For Ethereum, Avalanche and CopyrightChain transactions, we recommend the Nano S/X/blue Ledger as a physical wallet, Metamask as a client web3 and mobile wallet.
At NIM we are also using https://gnosis-safe.io/ for multisignature (as with NIM Foundation). A more userfriendly wallet is https://www.venly.io/

Web3 refers to applications that represents the decentralized Internet

Whales refer to people possessing huge amounts of one or more crypto currency. These whales have the ability, due to their colossal capital, to strongly influence the course of the crypto currency in question.

The White Paper is a document presenting all the information related to a particular cryptocurrency or to a particular Blockchain. In general, this document makes it possible to convince – or not – potential investors of the interest of the project in question.

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